|156424. Wed Mar 14, 2007 7:21 am
|Picking up from "Elderliness" in E-Research:
Question: What was Lev Bronstein (Joseph Jugashvili, Vladimir Ulianov etc) famous for?
"Lenin" was his "revolutionary" pseudonym to commemorate the victims of the Lena River (in Siberia) Goldfield Mines massacre in the beginning of the 20th century. His real last name was "Ulianov" and he was half-Jewish (mother's maiden name was "Blank"), half-Mordovian (Mordva is a small Volga River area Asian nation).
A little known fact about Lenin. He was suffering from a serious speech defect: could not pronounce "R" and had to say "G" instead (burred?). So his famous statement of 1917 - for the English ear - would probably sound like: "Comgades! The ggeat ghevolution has happened! Hoogay!"
"Stal'" in Russian means "steel" - that explains Stalin's pseudonym. His name at birth was "Djugashvili" - a typically Georgian last name which would have sounded alien and hard-to-pronounce to many Russians. And his first nickname, when he was a convicted bank robber and OKHRANA's (Tsar's secret police) informer in his youth, was "Koba" (friend in Georgian). Only very close comrades of his were allowed to address him as "Koba".
Several other “pseudonyms” of the famous “revolutionaries” who were all Jewish and had distinct Jewish names. With anti-Semitism rampant in Russia, it was one of the main reasons for their name changes.
Leon Trotsky (pseudonym of Lev Davidovich Bronstein)
Russian Jewish revolutionary, born in Yanovka, S Ukraine. He studied at Odessa, and in 1898 was arrested as a Marxist and exiled to Siberia. He escaped in 1902, joined Lenin in London, and in the abortive 1905 revolution was president of the St Petersburg Soviet. He then worked as a revolutionary journalist in the West, returning to Russia in 1917, when he joined the Bolsheviks and played a major role in the October Revolution. In the Civil War he was commissar for war, and created the Red Army. After Lenin's death (1924) his influence began to decline. He was ousted from the party by Stalin, who opposed his theory of ‘permanent revolution’, exiled to C Asia (1927), and expelled from the Soviet Union (1929). He continued to agitate as an exile, and was sentenced to death in his absence by a Soviet court in 1937. He finally found asylum in Mexico, but was assassinated by Ramón Mercader, a Spanish Communist. The Soviet government denied any responsibility and Mercader was convicted and imprisoned.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (real name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky)
also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, primary revolutionary pseudonym Grigory, privately Grisha), (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
Before the 1917 Revolution (1901-1917)
Grigory Zinoviev was born in Yelizavetgrad (currently Kirovohrad), Ukraine, Russian Empire on September 23, 1883 to Jewish dairy farmers, who educated him at home. Between 1923 and 1935 the city was known as Zinovyevsk (or Zinovievsk).
Zinoviev joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1901 and was a member of its Bolshevik faction from the time of its creation in 1903. Between 1903 and the fall of the Russian Empire in February 1917, he was one of the leading Bolsheviks and Lenin's closest associates, working both within Russia and abroad as circumstances permitted. He was elected to the RSDLP's Central Committee in 1907 and sided with Lenin in 1908 when the Bolshevik faction split into Lenin's supporters and Alexander Bogdanov's followers. Zinoviev remained Lenin's constant aide-de-camp and representative in various socialist organizations until 1917.
Kamenev, Lev Borisovich, 1883–1936, Soviet Communist leader. His original name was Rosenfeld. He joined (1901) the Social Democratic party and sided with the Bolshevik wing when the party split (1903). Banished (1915) to Siberia for his revolutionary activities, he returned after the February Revolution of 1917 and became a member of the first Politburo of the Communist party. On Lenin's death (1924), Kamenev, Stalin, and Zinoviev formed a triumvirate of successors and excluded Trotsky, Kamenev's brother-in-law, from power. In 1925 the Stalinist majority in the party defeated Kamenev and Zinoviev, who joined (1926) Trotsky's opposition. Kamenev was expelled from the party in 1927, but he recanted, was readmitted, and held minor offices. He was arrested late in 1934 on charges of complicity in the murder of Kirov and was sentenced to imprisonment. In 1936 he, Zinoviev, and 14 others were tried for treason in the first big public purge trial. They confessed and were executed. Zinoviev's wife, Trotsky's sister, perished in the Gulag.
Will copy this to "Elderliness" too, albeit it has little to do with the topic. VV