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Who can see what Qi on TV and when?

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CB27
1380827.  Tue May 04, 2021 10:18 am Reply with quote

During a recent conversation where some of the people present were born outside the UK, the discussion had turned to the videos from Mars, and a few of us mentioned how wonderful it would have been to be aro9und 1969 to have the opportunity to watch the moon landings live.

Then, one of our group who is from South Africa, pointed out that people in South Africa missed it. When someone said "Not everyone owned TVs in other countries, but they had parties, or watched them in the shops", it was pointed out that in SA television service only started in 1976, so television and a broadcast weren't around in 1969 for anyone in SA.

The reason why SA didn't have broadcasts for so many years was partly because of the old fashioned view of certain ministers who thought televisions were corrupting, and partly out of fear of allowing films, programmes and adverts produced outside SA which could feature mixed race relations. Apparently missing out on the Moon Landings was one of the final straws for many white people in SA who demanded a broadcast service.

This shocked some people, and I mentioned that TV was also late to Israel, albeit that it started in 1968 (there was an educational service running for two years before that).

In the case of Israel, it was again the old fashioned views that television could be corrupting, but it was also a fear that exposing the youth to non Israeli culture could stymie the growth of Israeli culture and identity.

Ironically, being a small country surrounded by several Arab countries who were already broadcasting television, households in Israel could easily pick up several TV channels (for example, I didn't know Sesame Street wasn't Arabic until many years later).

The authorities felt compelled to start a broadcast service partly to combat the propaganda being broadcast to Israeli Arabs and Palestinians, and also because Jordan began broadcasting propaganda in Hebrew as well.

However, old fashioned views still prevailed, and broadcasts could only be transmitted in black and white (regardless of whether programmes were in colour or not). Colour was seen as something frivolous and unnecessary. In order to ensure everything was transmitted in black and white, the Israeli authorities developed a system called Mekhikon which literally "erased" the colour. Of course, Israelis being as innovative as they were, TVs were sold with the option of an Anti-Mekhikon device to put the colour back in.

I remember as a kid the colour would sometimes phase out or completely disappear and you had to turn the knob on the TV to get the colour back, and one of us kids would always be neat the TV because you had to do this several times a night.

Then Israel won the Eurovision, and the authorities were pressured into allowing the Eurovision to be broadcast in colour, and as it didn't cause all the problems previously feared, by 1981 permission was given to start filming in colour, and in 1983 finally joined the modern world.

There are probably interesting stories of why television was introduced late into other countries as well, but at the time of writing, I'm only aware of Tuvalu as being the single country with no national broadcasting service, they rely on Fiji's service.

 
Jenny
1380835.  Tue May 04, 2021 10:53 am Reply with quote

Well that is really interesting, and I ought to post it on the What I Learned Today thread, but it would be a bit repetitive so I won't!

 
AlmondFacialBar
1380848.  Tue May 04, 2021 1:51 pm Reply with quote

Fun facts about German TV history:

Germany had the first regular TV service on earth, starting in 22-Mar-1935 because it was, of course, an excellent propaganda medium. It wasn't intended for consumption in private households but instead there were state-run public TV parlours for communal viewing in and around Berlin. There was 2 hours of programming a day, extended to 8 hours a day during the 1936 Olympics. Outside Berlin and Hamburg people had to rely on the cinema news reels and radio for their non-print news, though. That limited TV service stayed available until the winter of 1944, though mostly for troop entertainment.

After the war, the GDR was first to start a regular TV service again on 21-Dec-1952 and West Germany followed four days later on Christmas Day. The first surge in actual TV set sales came in late May 1953, in time for Lieschen Battenberg's coronation. My mum remembers that the first family in her street to own a TV had a viewing party for the occasion and her parents dressed up for it. The next surge of course came in time for the 1954 world cup.

In 1962, the then federal chancellor Konrad Adenauer tried to introduce a federal TV service that was widely thought to be a planned as a government propaganda instrument, but was told where to stick that idea by the federal constitutional court because under the Grundgesetz (German constitution), broadcasting sovereignty lies strictly with the Länder. Out of that came the second channel, which is still literally called the Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German TV Service). It went live in 1963.

Meanwhile in the GDR, people consumed Westfernsehen with the same kind of semi-illicit enthusiasm that made my friends and me pile up on American neighbours' sofas to watch AFN. There was a chain of transmitters lined up along the inner-German border to cater to them and any self-respecting entertainment programme broadcast special greetings to "our viewers in the GDR". The only place where it was almost impossible to receive West German broadcasters was the area around Dresden, which was therefore known as the Valley of the Clueless. The Powers that Were used people's devotion to Westfernsehen to suss their political reliability by checking their aerials - you needed huge, specially shaped ones (vertical double yagis) pointed straight at the nearest border transmitter to receive it - and by getting little kids to draw the Sandman in class. The parents of those who drew the West German one were automatically subjected to further scrutiny. Yet - get that - after the reunification, the East Sandman became one of the few things that were taken over federally while the West one joined its obsolete kids TV brethren on the Great CRT TV In The Sky.

Germany was one of the last countries in Europe to get commercial broadcasting, radio and TV at the same time, in 1983, universally available satellite TV in 1988 and only got Pay TV in 1996.

Hence, up to 1983 we literally had 3 channels (3 1/2 if you were lucky enough to live in an area of intersecting footprints like I did), the First and Second by and large federally networked ones (though the notoriously rightwing Bayrischer Rundfunk occasionally opted out of the more blatantly political entertainment produced by the just as notoriously leftwing Radio Bremen) and the regional Thirds that focussed on educational and special interest programming. And yes, in German we still say First, Second, Third for those three and only call the others by their actual names, even if born long after that public service monopoly ceased.

As for colour, Germany got it in 1967, but only went wall to wall with it for the 1972 Olympics. My parents didn't bother with colour till about 1980, so when I was very little indeed watching TV in more technologically advanced households was always quite the thrill.

Congratulations, you made it all the way through this three volume novel of a post that probably has nothing at all of interest to offer to an English-speaker. Here, have a lolly! 🍭😉

:-)

AlmondFacialBar


Last edited by AlmondFacialBar on Tue May 04, 2021 8:14 pm; edited 2 times in total

 
Dix
1380850.  Tue May 04, 2021 2:50 pm Reply with quote

Denmark had one state broadcast channel until 1983 where local TV stations were allowed to start up.
Ads were completely banned until allowed when the state broadcaster was allowed to create a second channel (TV2) which was part licence financed and part ad financed, with ads strictly limited to be between programs. Until 1987 it had been illegal for private households to use satellite dishs to receive foreign TV channels. When that ban was lifted various commercial channels started up faster than you can say "money", mainly based in London so as to sidestep the Danish advertising rules.

 
crissdee
1380853.  Tue May 04, 2021 3:14 pm Reply with quote

I remember when my mum and dad got our first colour TV. It was going to be delivered while I was at school (early 70s), and I rushed home and into the living room to witness the miracle. The very first thing that came on?


An Abbot and Costello movie..........

 
AlmondFacialBar
1380855.  Tue May 04, 2021 3:26 pm Reply with quote

Dix wrote:
Denmark had one state broadcast channel until 1983 where local TV stations were allowed to start up.
Ads were completely banned until allowed when the state broadcaster was allowed to create a second channel (TV2) which was part licence financed and part ad financed, with ads strictly limited to be between programs. Until 1987 it had been illegal for private households to use satellite dishs to receive foreign TV channels. When that ban was lifted various commercial channels started up faster than you can say "money", mainly based in London so as to sidestep the Danish advertising rules.


Not entirely dissimilar to Germany, that, only both public service broadcasters have been part advertising funded since day 1, with extremely strict rules - they can still only show ads between 18:00 and 20:00h, sponsorship was illegal till around 1990 and is still only allowed for a very limited array of programming. The upside of all that was that movies on those channels still run without ad breaks and that is rather nice.

crissdee wrote:
I remember when my mum and dad got our first colour TV. It was going to be delivered while I was at school (early 70s), and I rushed home and into the living room to witness the miracle. The very first thing that came on?


An Abbot and Costello movie..........


"Daaaaaaad, the new colour telly isn't working!" 😉

:-)

AlmondFacialBar

 
suze
1380857.  Tue May 04, 2021 5:14 pm Reply with quote

I had better join the other foreigners and say something about television in my homeland.

There were some experimental broadcassts in Montréal in the 30s, but otherwise Canada didn't have television until 1952. Except, of course, that the ~80% of Canadians who lived within 100 miles of the border were able to watch American television - and many did.

In those days, successive governments in Ottawa were very concerned about not turning into USA North, and so they imposed strict limits on the amount of American programming that could be broadcast on Canadian stations. The rules change from time to time, but such limits still exist - although in practice, many stations circumvent them by broadcasting their required quota of locally made shows during the daytime and in the middle of the night.

There were no such limits on British programming, and there used to be rather a lot of it. Notably Coronation Street, which has aired on CBC Television since 1966. At one point it was about five years behind the UK, but by now it's seven days.

Some American-made shows air on a Canadian network at the same time as they air in the US. The Super Bowl, coverage of American election nights, American Idol, CSI when it was at its peak, stuff like that. (Not the Stanley Cup. Ice hockey is one of the rather few things for which an American network would ever take a Canadian feed.)

For such shows, there is a weird provision whereby the Canadian station can broadcast over the top of the American station - so that Canadian viewers get Canadian ads rather than American ones. This gets controversial when it comes to the Super Bowl, since many feel that the very expensive ads are part of the experience - and some years the American ads stay in.

I don't really remember black and white television. Old movies obviously, but original broadcasts in most of Canada were all colour from 1969 onwards. Some local newscasts in remoter areas were black and white until about 1976, and Coronation Street will have been black and white into the 70s as well - but the vast majority of what I saw in Vancouver was in colour.

Canada abolished the need for a licence to watch television in 1953. While there are countries which have never had any such thing (Spain and the US are the most obvious), I think Canada was the first which did have it to abolish it.

 
Awitt
1380858.  Tue May 04, 2021 5:36 pm Reply with quote

Re South Africa - in the mid 1990's I had a lass in my community college style class, name Barbara, nickname Barbie. She was older than me, in her 20's.
People kept asking her didn't she know about Barbie the doll and no, she didn't.

I now wonder if the tv thing was responsible.

Re tv coming to Australia - I know that the Melbourne 1956 Olympics were a big part of it - though not every family could still afford it - people now report on history style sites that they went into the department stores to watch the multiple tv units.

Our tv licence was abolished in the 1970's by PM Gough Whitlam. Before then, inspections were common and some people remember the tv being turned off and hidden.
https://www.nfsa.gov.au/latest/radio-and-tv-licences

I remember a black and white tv being used in my grandmother's bedroom as the 'spare set'.

 
Leith
1380859.  Tue May 04, 2021 5:39 pm Reply with quote

AlmondFacialBar wrote:
My parents didn't bother with colour till about 1980, so when I was very little indeed watching TV in more technologically advanced households was always quite the thrill.

Trying to figure out when I first saw colour TV. What memories I have that far back probably aren't very reliable, but I think I recall the excitement of my dad hunting with the tuner to see if our little black and white set could pick up the launch of Channel 4. It was shortly after that that we moved out of the village into town and were able to get a shiny big colour set from the rental store. Must have been about 1983, I think.

 
AlmondFacialBar
1380861.  Tue May 04, 2021 7:33 pm Reply with quote

In gawk-worthy news - apparently Liechtenstein had no native TV service until 2008. I guess they've always been well supplied by their neighbours, though.

And another fun German TV fact I just learned now (yay Wikipedia) - the morning programming I remember starting in 1980 actually started in 1961, but was originally transmitted solely into the GDR to give people there an alternative to their own, state-run current affairs programmes that ran at the same time.

:-)

AlmondFacialBar

 
Jenny
1380863.  Tue May 04, 2021 9:09 pm Reply with quote

We didn't have a TV at home at all until I was about 9, so that's 1959, and then of course it was black and white. I think my mum and dad got their first colour telly in the mid-70s.

I know when I was first married in the early 70s our TV was a second hand ex-rental black and white that we bought for about £5, and the volume knob was missing so to change the volume you had to use a pair of tweezers to grip the spindle where the knob should have been.

 
AlmondFacialBar
1380873.  Wed May 05, 2021 3:44 am Reply with quote

Jenny wrote:
We didn't have a TV at home at all until I was about 9, so that's 1959, and then of course it was black and white. I think my mum and dad got their first colour telly in the mid-70s.

I know when I was first married in the early 70s our TV was a second hand ex-rental black and white that we bought for about £5, and the volume knob was missing so to change the volume you had to use a pair of tweezers to grip the spindle where the knob should have been.


Aaaaaah, first telly nostalgia... Mine was a red plastic 15" b/w set I salvaged from the skip after my grandauntie died when I was 9. It had channel dials I had only ever seen in America before that and an indoor aerial, so reception was... Interesting. I kept it in my room and sneakily watched the German premiere of the full-length Thriller video on it, broadcast at midnight because it was regarded as too problematic for primetime. Thanks to the shitty reception and the b/w I didn't get the full experience of it until years later, but at least that way I was able to say I'd seen it. Another thing I first saw on that telly was Peter Zadek's TV adapation of Sean O'Casey's The Silver Tassie that many years later formed the backbone of my MA. Given the massive role colour plays in that movie, it's a very good thing indeed that by then I was no longer dependent on that marvel of televisual equipment.

:-)

AlmondFacialBar

 
crissdee
1380879.  Wed May 05, 2021 5:05 am Reply with quote

suze wrote:
This gets controversial when it comes to the Super Bowl, since many feel that the very expensive ads are part of the experience...


As someone who give significantly less than two f*cks about any televised sport, watching the Superb Owl at all seems strange to me. Watching it for the ads that interrupt the game???????

 
Brock
1380887.  Wed May 05, 2021 6:02 am Reply with quote

AlmondFacialBar wrote:
Fun facts about German TV history:

Germany had the first regular TV service on earth, starting in 22-Mar-1935


Really?

Iain Logie Baird wrote:
The beginning of British television broadcasting is usually presented as the 1936 television trials held at the Alexandra Palace in London, however, the 'high-definition' qualifier in the phrase 'the world's first regular high-definition television service' was there for a reason. Regular television broadcasts on the original 'low-definition' Baird standard had been made from 1929 until 1935 using the BBC's existing medium-wave radio transmitters. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, in addition to thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays (after BBC radio went off the air). The limited bandwidth of the medium-wave radio transmitters ensured that picture resolution remained at only 30 lines. The future of television lay in ultra-short waves.

It was not until 22 August 1932 that the BBC reluctantly took over programme production from the Baird company. At this time, the vision signal was sent out on 261.3 metres (London National) with the sound on 398.9 metres (Midland Regional).


https://www.bairdtelevision.com/1932-television-demonstrated-in-1952.html

 
dr.bob
1380898.  Wed May 05, 2021 9:23 am Reply with quote

Brock wrote:
AlmondFacialBar wrote:
Fun facts about German TV history:

Germany had the first regular TV service on earth, starting in 22-Mar-1935


Really?


Possibly.

According to the Science and Media museum, Baird started "regular" "experimental" television broadcasts in 1929.

It wasn't until 2 November 1936 that the BBC started broadcasting "regular" high-definition programmes from Alexandra Palace to the London area.

I guess it all depends on how you define a "regular TV service", and whether "experimental" broadcasts really count.

 

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