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1296611.  Thu Sep 27, 2018 6:25 am Reply with quote

Going by Freddie's outfit that was actually Live Aid. Which is admittedly beside the point. Very cool visualisation of the speed of sound indeed!



DVD Smith
1297100.  Mon Oct 01, 2018 4:47 am Reply with quote

Q: Which member of the Royal Family has the title "Duke of Lancaster"?

[Klaxon: Any male member of the Royal Family]

A: Queen Elizabeth II.

The Duke of Lancaster is one of the many titles held by the current English/British monarch, ever since 1413 when the Duke of Lancaster became King Henry V.

More info in the 'Dukes' thread here.

Alexander Howard
1297129.  Mon Oct 01, 2018 7:16 am Reply with quote

DVD Smith wrote:
The Duke of Lancaster is one of the many titles held by the current English/British monarch, ever since 1413 when the Duke of Lancaster became King Henry V.

More info in the 'Dukes' thread here.

Henry IV, actually...

Henry Bolingbroke invaded England to force King Richard II to restore to him the title and lands that had belonged to his father, John of Gaunt as Duke of Lancaster (who was a nasty piece of work by all accounts apart from Shakespeare's). The result of his campaign placed Henry himself on the throne, so his claimed rights and title would by law have merged in the crown. Having come this far for them, Henry was not going to lose that title and its rights, so he declared the Duchy to be a separate franchise vested in the Crown.

In Lancashire, so I am told, the loyal toast is to "The Queen, The Duke of Lancaster". Then there is the proclamation declared each Lancashire Day.

(When I lived in the West Country, the television news always described Prince Charles as 'Duke of Cornwall', not 'Prince of Wales'. That's a bit off the topic of Queens though. Cornwall has a Duke but no queens of its own, not since the Dark Ages, but you do find Indian Queens there.)

DVD Smith
1297132.  Mon Oct 01, 2018 7:22 am Reply with quote

Alexander Howard wrote:
Henry IV, actually...

You're correct in that Henry IV (Bolingbroke) did have the title, but he relinquished it to his son while Henry was still king. When his son became Henry V, the titles of Duke of Lancaster and King of England were unified again, and ever since the reigning monarch has always carried the title of Duke of Lancaster.

So yeah, my original fact could have been clearer, but I meant "without interruption". :)

Alexander Howard
1297156.  Mon Oct 01, 2018 10:35 am Reply with quote

Ah - you are right. I did not know that detail.

1297178.  Mon Oct 01, 2018 11:43 am Reply with quote

Alexander Howard wrote:
In Lancashire, so I am told, the loyal toast is to "The Queen, The Duke of Lancaster".

In the Channel Islands, the toast is to La Reine, notre Duc. The reference in this case is to the title of Duke of Normandy, which is one of HM's many titles.

That was a French title which should have disappeared when the French peerage was abolished in 1848. But Queen Victoria liked the title, so it was "rescued" by being reinvented as the one and only title within the Peerage of Jersey.

The only other French peerage still in existence is the Baron de Longueuil. Longueuil is in Québec, and this one was reinvented as the one and only title within the Peerage of the Dominion of Canada. The 12th Baron - a second cousin to the Queen - is a retired GP from the Isle of Arran, and has only even been to Canada once. When he dies the title will pass to his daughter Angela, who teaches ballet in West London.

1305176.  Fri Nov 30, 2018 6:53 am Reply with quote

I hope this is quite interesting:

I wrote and presented a research paper arguing that the Merovingian kings (early medieval France) practiced polygyny (multiple queens). Scholars are pretty well divided 50/50 on whether they did or not, but there is compelling evidence in favour of it being practiced. Dagobert I, in addition to his three named wives (there is a debate as to whether they were sequential or simultaneous), is described by the Fredegar chronicler as having so many concubines that a list of all of them would render his chronicle too long. All kinds of goodies like that, and I would be happy to send the elves the original paper (which isn't long), but I can't post it, as I wish to have it published after some revising.

Alexander Howard
1306507.  Wed Dec 12, 2018 2:40 am Reply with quote

I was going to write something insightful about queens in the Middle Ages, but will just run some statistics.

In the Anglo-Saxon period from King Alfred to the end of the Danish period there are fifteen Queens of the English recorded, of whom a third were named Ælfgifu. In fact from Alfred up to the Conquest, all the Queens but two had names echoing those used in the royal House of Wessex, which used names beginning ‘Ælf’, ‘Æthel’, ‘Ead’ or ‘Eald’. This suggests a lack of imagination in female names, or that noble families knew how to suck up to royalty.

The queens of Edward the Confessor and Harold both Edith, as was Harold's mistress (and his sister, although that was Edward's queen so I am double-counting), and Henry I's queen, though she was also known as Matilda. She was the last Queen Edith.

In the Middle Ages, from the Conquest to Henry VI, of 22 queens, six were named Elizabeth or Isabella (variants on the same name).

Ask any pub know-all about the famous Eleanor Crosses which used to line the route from Lincoln to London, and he will tell you they were for Eleanor of Aquitaine, but no – she survived her husband; there were three Queen Eleanors in a short space of time: the crosses were for Eleanor of Castile, Edward I’s first queen.

The Queen of Edward’s rebel enemy, Llywelyn the Last, was also an Eleanor. She was Edward’s cousin. It is uncertain whether the mountain in Snowdonia, Yr Elen, is named after her, but it is close to Carnedd Llywelyn, and another beside them has recently been renamed Carnedd Gwenllian after their daughter.

Alexander Howard
1307702.  Fri Dec 21, 2018 1:03 pm Reply with quote

Marie Antoinette: you could do a complete programme about her.

In Vienna (in the Hofburg, I think) there is a whole gallery devoted to Marie Antoinette, the Emperor's favourite daughter, showing her in childhood and as a growing young woman. In many of them, even as a child, she wears a red ribbon around her neck and frequently holds her hand carelessly pointing at her neck; it looks horribly prescient, until you learn that these portraits were not painted during the childhood they portray but after her death.

I like the story that when she was sent to marry Prince Louis she was led to the Rhine by her Austrian attendants, conveyed across the river, then led into a tent, where she was stripped of her Austrian clothes and redressed as a French princess to be received by her future husband.

I read that she wore potato flowers in her hair and understood that it was when she was playing at being a peasant maid - until a recent QI episode I did not realise that Antoine Parmentier had send potato flowers to the court. Rather than leaving the poor to starve then, Marie Antoinette was actually leading the way to seeing them all fed.

She certainly never said "let them eat cake" - that story long precedes the French Revolution (Rousseau refers to it in his Confessions). Other scandals were simply invented. Even today people are willing to believe a malicious slander to give them an excuse to hate someone else - it is a universal human characteristic, and Twitter's share price depends on it.

Violent revolutions occur when reform is beginning, when things are in flux and the extremists realise that they must strike before they settle again and someone else's vision is established. We forget that every generation and learn it again every generation, most recently in the Arab world. Marie Antoinette then was slain by the deep flaws not in herself but in humanity and in order that one political faction could climb briefly to the top over its opponents' corpses and those of a King and Queen.
1380073.  Fri Apr 23, 2021 2:47 pm Reply with quote

Q. What does the Queen sit in when she's crowned?

[Klaxons: a throne]

A. A chair.

St. Edward's Chair, which is used whenever British monarchs are invested with their regalia and crowns, is not technically a throne at all. It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland—known as the Stone of Destiny—which had been captured from the Scots who kept it at Scone Abbey. The chair was named after Edward the Confessor, and was previously kept in his shrine at Westminster Abbey where it now permanently resides.

It was removed from the Abbey only twice - once for the investiture of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England in Westminster Hall during the Interregnum, and the second time during World War II when it was removed to Gloucester Cathedral for safekeeping.

The only English/British monarch who wasn’t sitting on it during her coronation was Mary II, who reigned and was crowned concurrently with her husband. On that particular occasion he used the chair instead, and they couldn’t both sit on it at once.

The only occasion a throne is used during a coronation service is during the enthronement and the following homage whereby the monarch sits on a throne on a dais in the middle of the transept. When a queen consort is crowned a similar throne is provided for her but placed at a lower level. Prior to this, during the liturgy, both the monarch and consort sit on Chairs of Estate, placed on the south side of the sanctuary.

After the coronation these are typically moved to the official royal residences of Buckingham Place, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse.,and%20crowned%20at%20their%20coronations.


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