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PORTUGAL

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Frederico Rogeiro
730561.  Thu Jul 29, 2010 9:07 pm Reply with quote

I'm almost offended by not seing Portugal in this list!

Portugal is one of most ancient countries in the world, the oldest border in Europe, and portuguese is spoken by 250 million people.

The Kingdom of Portugal was born in the XII century (1143) by its first king, D. Afonso Henriques, who descendent of Charlemagne.
He was the first of 34 kings in 4 dinasties, who lasted until 1910.
This very year, Porugal celebrates 100 years of the Republic, in one of our national hollydays, October 5.

In the first dinasty, until 1385, the first portuguese were occupied expeling the arabs that domained the peninsula Ibérica since 711.

The second dinasty, starting in a political crisis along black plage, it would contain the most glorious feat of the portuguese: the Discoveries.
Portuguese travelled first to conquer cities in Marocco and discovered their present islands of Azores and Madeira in the XV century.
In the last years of the century, portuguese reached Índia by sea (by Vasco da Gama, 1498) and Brazil (by Pedro Álvares Cabral, 1500).
Some years later Fernão de Magalhães would conceive his travel around the world, but at the service of the spanish crown.
Also in the XVI century, our greatest poet, Luís de Camões wrote the epic poem of the portuguese, "Os Lusíadas", dedicated to the Discoveries. June 10th is our most important national hollyday in his honor.

Between 1580 and 1640, portuguese were under a spanish dinasty, after a political treason. This was the third dinasty, initiated by Filipe, son of emperor Charles V.

After that, portuguese lived from the richness of their colonies and progressively lost their greatness.
As a roman catholic country, had the inquisition in this period, until the Liberal Revolutions of the 1820s, influenced by the French Revolution, and the stablishment of the parliament.

After the fall of monarchy, the first republicans and the conservative sector had many disputes, and was the ditactor Óliveira Salazar that managed to install a stabile regime, since 1928.
It was a period of conservatism and isolation, that started to falter in the 1960s with the colonial wars in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea. (Brazil was lost in 1822).

Portugal is a democracy since 1974, and has a semi-parliamentary regim. Is a member of the European Union since 1986, like Spain.

If you want to know more about Portugal, I'll be pleased to answer you, if you don't mind my writing errors. haha.

Frederico
(Portugal)


Last edited by Frederico Rogeiro on Thu Jul 29, 2010 10:32 pm; edited 3 times in total

 
Jenny
730574.  Thu Jul 29, 2010 9:46 pm Reply with quote

Thank you Frederico - good to have a contribution from somebody writing about his own country.

I believe Portugal is England's oldest ally overseas isn't it?

 
Frederico Rogeiro
730583.  Thu Jul 29, 2010 10:26 pm Reply with quote

I allways heard that, Jenny, and I know they helped us sometimes, like when the french tried to conquer Portugal in Napoleon time.
I know also that it occurred a big crisis in that alliance around 1890.
I must say I know little about that issue, but I promise to get some more information about it.

 
Jenny
730655.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 11:05 am Reply with quote

The wife of King Charles II was Catherine of Braganza, so that dates us back to 1660 or so, but in fact the alliance is older than that. According to Wikipedia:

Wikipedia wrote:
The Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, ratified at the Treaty of Windsor in 1386, between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force.

This alliance, which goes back to the Middle Ages, has served both countries. It was very important throughout history, influencing the participation of the United Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsular War, the UK's major land contribution to the Napoleonic Wars and the establishment of an Anglo-American base in Portugal. Portugal was also there for England (and later the UK) in times of need, for example, in the First World War.


The rest of the article can be found here.

The original alliance was sealed by another marriage in 1387, that of the daughter of the John of Gaunt, Philippa of Lancaster, to king John I of Portugal. By this marriage, John I became the father of a generation of princes called by the poet Luís de Camões, the "marvellous generation", who led Portugal into its golden age, during the period of the Discoveries.

 
Frederico Rogeiro
730665.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 12:34 pm Reply with quote

Jenny, you were faster than I was. Thanks!
By the wat, John I was the first king of the second dinasty, called the Avis dinasty, after him. Henry the Navigator, one of his sons, was who conceived all the portuguese expansion.

 
Zebra57
730703.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 5:31 pm Reply with quote

Fred I would not worry about your English it is 100% better than
my Portuguese.

There are many unusual links between Britain and Portugal.

Charles the Second gave the inhabitants of Madeira a special dispensation to sell wine to Britain and all her colonies.

The last king of Portugal, King Manuel II lived in exile at Fulwell Park Twickenham in West London when deposed in 1910. He died unexpectedly in his residence on July 2, 1932 and his body was returned to Portugal for burial.

 
Frederico Rogeiro
730706.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 5:49 pm Reply with quote

I didn't know about that, Zebra.
But eralier, I was remembering other things:

João I of Portugal (that I just mentioned) was married with Filipa de Lencastre (from the english Lancaster, then rouling).

I was remembering this period because once I read a novel from Bulwer Lytton, about the war of the two roses, when Henry VI (Lancaster) lost the crown to Edward IV.

Little after that, Henry VIII married for the first time, with a portuguese, Catarina.

 
Zebra57
730708.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 6:15 pm Reply with quote

Fred this quote from Wiki provides a unique insight into Anglo-Portuguese relations

"Philippa became Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage with King John I. This marriage was the final step in the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, against the France-Castile axis.

The couple received the blessing of the church in the Cathedral of Oporto on 2 February 1387. Their married life would officially begin on 14 February 1387. The Portuguese court celebrated the union for fifteen days. Philippa married King John I by proxy, and in keeping with a unique Portuguese tradition, the stand-in bridegroom pretended to bed the bride. The stand-in for King John I was João Rodrigues de Sá.

The marriage itself, as was usually the case for the nobility in the Middle Ages, had more to do with political alliances than with physical attraction, and in fact the couple never met until twelve days after they were legally married. In point of fact, Philippa was considered to be rather plain, and in any case King João I (John I) already had a mistress, Inês Peres Esteves, by whom he had three children. In marrying Philippa, King John I established a political and personal alliance with John of Gaunt, initially because it was rumored that John of Gaunt would claim the Kingdom of Castile through his younger daughter by Constance of Castile, Catherine of Lancaster. As the “de facto King of Castile,” it was feared that John of Gaunt could challenge King John’s claim to the newly-formed Kingdom of Portugal. [Instead, at Windsor in 1386, John I of Portugal signed the remarkably long-lasting Portuguese-British Alliance, which continued through the Napoleonic Wars and ensured Portugal's tenuous neutrality in World War II, almost 600 years later!]

Catherine of Aragon (Catarina) while the great-great grand daughter of Phillipa (Filipa) would be considered Spanish. She was named after Catherine of Lancaster.

 
Frederico Rogeiro
730715.  Fri Jul 30, 2010 8:50 pm Reply with quote

That's most interesting, Zebra.
And personally, that ancient alliance is somewhat a pride, because in politics I have the british in very high steem.
And the portuguese too. "A strange people who can't govern itself nor let itself be governed." That's a sentence I've seen attributed to Julius Caesar, Napoleon and Hitler. But very good willing and inteligent at foreign police and diplomacy.

 
Frederico Rogeiro
730733.  Sat Jul 31, 2010 3:58 am Reply with quote

Since I am a caricaturist and we're talking about the history of Portugal, let me add a drawing of mine to ilustrate our conversation.



Vasco da Gama

 
Zebra57
731643.  Wed Aug 04, 2010 6:42 pm Reply with quote

Fred you may find the Portuguese settlers in London QI:

Portuguese merchants had been living in London since medieval times particularly associated with the wine trade.

A small secret Portuguese Jewish community lived in London who were escaping persecution in Portugal. They arrived some time after 1496 and were known as the "New Christians". Many historians point to this group as posing as Christians. By 1550, there were around a hundred members of this Portuguese Jewish community in London. Prominent were the Anes family.

Dr Lopez a physician to Queen Elizabeth came from this community. He was convicted and executed for his part in a plot to poison Queen Elizabeth. It is thought that the unfortunate Lopez was framed and it is said that Elizabeth herself was reluctant to sign his death warrant. Shakespeare almost certainly used Dr Lopez as his inspiration for Shylock.

In 1609 the community were expelled by James 1st as a result of lobbying by hard line Protestants. However some may have continued to live in London after this date.

 
Bondee
731965.  Fri Aug 06, 2010 2:33 pm Reply with quote

Zebra57 wrote:
The last king of Portugal, King Manuel II lived in exile at Fulwell Park Twickenham in West London when deposed in 1910. He died unexpectedly in his residence on July 2, 1932 and his body was returned to Portugal for burial.


His wife, Marie Amelie, daughter of the Comte de Paris, claimant to the French throne, also had a link to Twickenham. She had been born at York House in the town in 1865.

source
(along with plenty of information about King Manoel II himself)

 
Jenny
734352.  Tue Aug 17, 2010 10:21 am Reply with quote

Interesting story about Portugal's efforts to provide energy from renewable resources - see http://www.care2.com/greenliving/portugal-close-to-45-renewable-electricity.html . Apparently they are reaping close to 45% of their energy needs from these various sources.

 
Zebra57
827677.  Wed Jun 29, 2011 6:15 am Reply with quote

During the War of the Oranges in 1801 the French/Spanish combined forces seized the territory of Olivenza from Portugal.

Spain took over the area and should have returned it to Portugal but it never complied with the terms of the Treaty of Vienna (1815). Does Portugal still claim the territory?

 
samivel
827779.  Wed Jun 29, 2011 12:26 pm Reply with quote

Not formally, but they don't formally recognise Spain's sovereignty either.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disputed_status_of_Olivenza

 

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