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1413620.  Thu Jun 23, 2022 9:04 am Reply with quote

Cool colour-changing minerals

1414899.  Tue Jul 12, 2022 8:09 am Reply with quote

Their approximately 95% hunt success rate means dragonflies are about nineteen times as effective as tigers and about ten times as effective as peregrine falcons in terms of kills per hunt.

1414900.  Tue Jul 12, 2022 8:51 am Reply with quote

Well yes, but the tigers and falcons have to use claws rather than fire, so they're not really in the same league.


1414901.  Tue Jul 12, 2022 8:56 am Reply with quote

AFAIK next after the dragonfly - which is a pretty unusual insect in many anatomical regards - comes the African wild dog with a success rate of 85%; makes you wonder what African wild dogs are doing that wolves (14%) aren't or vice a versa.

1414902.  Tue Jul 12, 2022 10:07 am Reply with quote

It's all about how much energy you can commit to an individual hunt. I expect dragonflies get relatively low energy meals so they need to be very successful multiple times per day, while wolves only need to catch something every other day. African wild dogs may be more picky about when the commit to a hunt, so their success rate is higher but they turn down many more risky opportunities that could have paid off.

1414990.  Wed Jul 13, 2022 11:58 pm Reply with quote

That's one of the reasons I didn't make any reference to hunter efficiency - there are too many variables (total resources expended vs resources gained) but for a solitary hunter 95% success rate is impressive.

A range of details for different species doesn't seem to be available from a single source but:

Wolves need 3 to 4Kg of flesh per day but often eat more and do not feed again for days.


African wild dogs belong to the Canidae family; however grey wolves, coyotes, dogs and jackals are members of the Canis genus, whereas African wild dogs are the sole extant species in the Lycaeon genus.

Food webs describe the network of feeding interactions in ecological communities (McCann, 1996; Polis and Winemiller, 1996; Thompson et al., 2012). At each consumer-resource interaction, a fraction of the resources is transferred to the consumer as new biomass while the remaining resources are released into the environment (i.e., respiration, egestion, and excretion). Understanding the efficiency through which nutrients (i.e., including molecules and the elements contained therein) are assimilated vs. respired/excreted/egested by consumers is critical for understanding and modeling the pathways through which nutrients flow through ecosystems (McCann, 1996; Polis and Winemiller, 1996; Thompson et al., 2012). Given the complexity of most food webs, it is not feasible to empirically study each pairwise trophic interaction. Hence, it is important to develop methods that can be used to predict the fates (e.g., assimilation, excretion) of nutrients during trophic interactions.

In other sources I've encountered on the subject the rather rare phenomenon of biologists getting mathemetical begins to appear. I'm not a big fan of this 'entire creature bioenergetics' as it has no cellular basis so it treats a single individual of a complex, niche specialised multicellular species as a control volume - a nutritional 'black box' if you like.

The energetic cost of foraging for a chick is calculated as the sum of the cost of foraging for self plus the energy content of the food delivered to the chick. Thus if g(c) is the daily energetic cost of feeding a chick, g(s) is the [energetic] cost of foraging for self and M grams of food is delivered to the nest at frequency Φ (deliveries per adult per day) then

g(c) = g(s) + MΓiΦ KJ/d files 31-Croxall-et-al pdf

Γi is the energetic content per gram of a given food.

On the other hand some of the most complex mathematical modelling I've seen in biology has been done with regard to the Biophysical Thermodynamics of Intracellular Processes though this appears to be hampered by the prevalence of mindless adherence to classical enzyme kinetics; it is however the right approach IMO.

1415787.  Wed Jul 27, 2022 11:57 am Reply with quote

Theodore Roosevelt once referred to Woodrow Wilson as a Byzantine Logothete.

In Byzantine government from the 6th to the 14th century, any of several officials who shared a variety of responsibilities ranging from the assessment and collection of taxes to the direction of foreign policy.

The officials of Byzantium were called Logothetes, "men of learning," "academic"; their foes were "barbarians." These men wrote notes to their foes, who read the notes and conquered the empire. Term defined by Prof. Basil Gildersleeve as "a scrivener, a subordinate who draws up papers." See N. Y. Tribune, Dec. 13, 1915.

1415800.  Wed Jul 27, 2022 3:13 pm Reply with quote

I wonder how many American presidents now would understand that.

1416050.  Mon Aug 01, 2022 9:09 am Reply with quote

FROG is a French stock exchange index.

1416054.  Mon Aug 01, 2022 9:46 am Reply with quote

I can't see the word FROG anywhere on that link, 14, but I'd love to think it was there.

1416057.  Mon Aug 01, 2022 10:23 am Reply with quote

Jenny wrote:
I can't see the word FROG anywhere on that link, 14, but I'd love to think it was there.

It is there - top and right. FROG appears to be the CAC oil and gas index.

1416059.  Mon Aug 01, 2022 10:58 am Reply with quote

Oh duh! In front of my very eyes...

Thanks ali.

1416075.  Tue Aug 02, 2022 1:06 am Reply with quote

ali wrote:
top and right. FROG appears to be the CAC oil and gas index.

Top and left. As a member of the CAC index family, it does represent the Industry Classification Benchmark's industry Energy. For example, the price index component McPhy Energy has got nothing to do with fossil fuels. FROG is its ticker indeed.

FRench Oil and Gas, nevertheless? Possibly, and quite likely too, but like the English language French tickers do record history and can be weird or outdated. The ticker of the shouty name SUEZ wasn't SUEZ (it was SEV), Engie's isn't ENGIE (ENGI), and Axa's ticker is CS, hard to guess that right. In Paris I do like the full names of ALDNE (ignore the prefix AL) and MLOSA (ignore the prefix ML): Don't Nod Entertainment, and Sorbet d'Amour. Irish tickers can be hard to guess right too: DD7D, PZQA, ...

When it would come down to claiming English words, then Oslo Brs is more efficient. KING, QUEST, RING, RIVER, and so on.

In Brussels the ticker BNB seems to match all languages in Brussels in a somehow neutral way, regardless of the order of words (Banque Nationale de Belgique, or Belgische Nationale Bank), but it doesn't. In Flanders it will be known as NBB (Nationale Bank van Belgi).

1416083.  Tue Aug 02, 2022 3:45 am Reply with quote

In The Lord of the Rings, well The Silmarillion to be strictly accurate, only one of the former identities of the Nazgl (aka the Ringwraiths, The Black Riders, The Nine) is ever given and it is not that of the 'boss' ringwraith the Witch-King of Angmar but that of his 2IC Khaml who was in life a lord of Easterlings.

Help me out here; shouldn't those pronunciations be 'Nazgool' and 'Kamool' or are we fine with the movie version of ''?

Presumably they called him Khaml because he always had the hump... I'll get me coat.

1416098.  Tue Aug 02, 2022 8:33 am Reply with quote

Tolkien was primarily a linguist and The Lord of the Rings was written around its languages, so if he wrote we'd better assume he meant it.

Wikipedia gives a list of languages that use this letter, and the one Tolkien was most likely thinking of is Welsh. According to Wiki, gives the sound of a "long stressed U". But we have to remember that U in Welsh is pronounced like English "ee".

Which would give pronunciations something like Naz-GEEL and Kham-EEL. (Which is reminiscent of the archangel Khamael or Camael, the archangel of war and courage, supposed to be the leader of the angelic forces that drove Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden. All of which would be a load of posey pedanticism, except that it's Tolkien and he might well have intended it.)


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